Synthetic Drugs, Detection, Uses and Residue in Effluents

Considerable advances have been made over the past century understanding the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. In the 1920’s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930’s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940’s and 1950’s scientific advances were made in toxicology and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. 

Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography  both invented in the 1950’s and 1960’s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chem. food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of agrochemicals., veterinary drug residues, natural toxins (e.g. mycotoxins and marine toxins), heat produced toxins (e.g. acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic. amines and furan), heavy metals (e.g. lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), and industrial chemicals  (e.g. benzene, perchlorate and melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry and consumers in the future.

Reliable and practicable analysis of veterinary drug residues in food-producing animals represented an important measure to ensure consumer protection. The progress of rapid screening methods and the use of accurate liquid chromatography.-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for the quant. detection of corticosteroids used as analytical methods for corticosteroids-residue detection.

Different veterinary drug residues (macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in honey were detected. The separation and determination was carried out by ultra performance liquid. Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), using an electrospay ionization source (ESI) in pos. mode. HPLC method was used for determination. of 10 sulfonamide drug residues in animal liver, including sulfaguanidine monohydrate, sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethoxydiazine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimoxinum, sulfaquinoxaline

A study tested a sewage epidemiology approach, using levels of excreted drug residues in waste water, to monitor collective use of the major drugs of abuse in near real time. Selected drug target residues derived from use of cocaine, opiates, cannabis, and amphetamines were measured by mass spectrometry in wastewater collected at major sewage treatment plants in Milan (Italy), Lugano (Switzerland), and London (United Kingdom).

Pet Drugs Online

Modern pet owners like to purchase their pet drugs online these days. There are many sites on the internet now where one can purchase your pets needs, and usually these are a lot cheaper than purchasing directly from your veterinary surgeon.

Veterinary prescriptions are available by law from your pet’s registered veterinary surgeon and the prescription can then be filled by an ordinary chemist, although these tend not to stock a lot of the specific veterinary medicines which our pets require. We thus end up buying our drugs for pets through a variety of websites.

Once you have the prescription in your possession, it may be scanned or photographed digitally, or simply faxed to your chosen provider of pet drugs. At Drugs4Pets they will accept Word documents, faxed documents, Jpeg files, .tif files, .epx files, or any other image format. Posted copies or faxed copies are also acceptable. Most people send their veterinary prescription in one of these electronic formats, to obtain their drugs online.

Buying Pet drugs from an online shop is very simple and secure these days with the advent of credit card secure sites on the internet. Providers such as Thawte and Worldpay, allow greater levels of card security than ever before through triple-checking of credit card credentials before allowing payment to go through… This can give you that important peace of mind while buying your pet drugs online.

Delivery of your pet drugs online is usually by Royal Mail, though for an additional cost, courier services can be used. There is also sometimes a facility to have pet foods delivered to your door by the online pet drugs merchant. This will normally attract an extra cost, but may be well worth it to reduce the hassle of going to your vets or garden centre to go and purchase your Hills or Royal Canin Waltham Pet Foods.

It is worth shopping around when purchasing drugs for your pets online as several providers now exist. Prices can vary widely and it is worth monitoring various sites to compare prices of the drugs online. Sometimes the cheapest is not necessarily the best and some sites have a poor record of customer service. Good providers will usually answer all follow up queries and will be prepared to replace your goods if stolen or lost in transit, subject to certain conditions.

If you are contemplating purchasing drugs for pets online, why not make sure your prescription is ready well beforehand – this will help process your order more quickly, and allow a smooth transaction with minimal delay.

It is also helpful, when purchasing pet drugs online, to make sure that the surname registered on the website as the orderer and recipient is the same name as that which appears on the prescription. Failure to do this can lead to confusion and delays.

Animal Health Products and Veterinary Market (Developing Veterinary Drugs and Biologics)

Veterinary medicine is a multi-billion dollar market. In the United States, there are an estimated 150 million dogs and cats. In recent years, an increasing number of biomedical companies (biotech, pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical, medical device, and diagnostic) have initiated efforts to advance their technologies and/or services into the animal health market. This serves two primary purposes, being to generate revenue and often obtain valuable data capture.

Misconceptions:

The process is simple. The process to get a veterinary product approved is not simple, and often requires years of work to obtain the necessary data to obtain an approval and support the product in the market.

The process is cheap. The costs do develop veterinary drugs or biologics is not cheap, and can range from several hundred thousand dollars to tens of millions, depending on the species, disease, etc.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates all animal products: The FDA-Center for Veterinary Medicine regulates drugs. However, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Center for Veterinary Biologics regulates diagnostics, vaccines, immune based products (immune modulators and immune stimulants), and immunoglobulin products. In addition, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates topical ectoparasitic products like topical flea and tick control.

How to Develop and Animal Health Product:

We advise seeking an expert in the field. Far too often, someone tries to develop a product for veterinary medicine only to find out they did not have the expertise or understanding (regulatory, market, etc.) to effectively develop the product. There are several consulting groups that can advise on how to develop veterinary products or those for the pet market. Some consultants may limit their services to regulatory affairs, while others may focus more on clinical trials or marketing. Finding a group which satisfies your needs is important.

What are the Biggest Markets:

This is often hard to define. Companion animals (dogs, cats, horses) often represent the largest spending per species per visit. Livestock (cattle, swine, poultry) represent the largest volume but the economic pressures are often far greater per animal. Minor species (ferrets, rabbits, etc) is a growing market, and the FDA has recently enacted the Minor Use Minor Species Act (MUMS Act) to facilitate the develop of drugs for these species.

How to get Started:

1. Define the regulatory path: The first step is to understand which regulatory agency will oversee the development of the technology or service. Once this is defined, it will set the foundation for the necessary clinical trials, manufacturing, labeling, promotional materials, and other aspects that will define the product or service. If you are not certain of which group will have oversight of the regulations, you should consult with an expert to help define your regulatory strategy.

2. Define the clinical path: Next, determining which trials (GLP, GCP) in target species will be required to support label claims and the approval. Don’t assume that previous lab animal work or unapproved studies will support your approval process.

3. Define the market strategy and economics: After the regulatory path, clinical path, and timeline are estimated, it is very important to understand the economics of the market you are proposing to go into. The concept that pet owners will spend anything on their pets is a huge mistake. There is a limit, as with any market, on the cost of treatment. Constructing the financial justification will help avoid financial mistakes and raise the confidence that the project will meet financial metrics (ROI, NPV, etc.).